What’s the Difference Between Jam, Jelly, Compote, and Conserve?

Here are the most important definitions in summary:
Jams are made from fruit, while jellies are made from juice. Preserves have chunks of fruit, conserves have dried fruit or nuts, and marmalades have peel and pulp. Fruit butters are slow cooked to a smooth consistency.
Take a look at this article on seriouseats.com for more.